"In the long history of humankind (and animal kind, too) those who learned to collaborate and improvise most effectively have prevailed." ~ Charles Darwin
The three videos culminate with an influential insight about animal intelligence and consciousness from the late ethologist Donald Griffin. Griffin led scientists to admit that far from being the dumb creatures many thought in the 19th century, incapable even of pain, animals, even very simple ones, may have developed “consciousness” in some form or other from the start because it is simply the easiest — most efficient — way for evolution, in the form of Darwinian natural selection, to advance.
..meet some stray dogs who have mastered the Moscow subway system — as well as Eugene Linden, and that English cat riding the bus.